The politicization of the migrants’ journey has obfuscated the far more serious humanitarian crisis unfolding at the Southern border. Central Americans are arriving to seek protection from entrenched forms of violence and deep inequalities in their countries. And, as the images of the women, many carrying children, in the caravan hint at, it is a humanitarian crisis that affects women and girls especially.

A 2011 “Dear Colleague” letter issued by Barack Obama’s Office of Civil Rights reaffirmed that sexual violence in educational institutions constitutes a Title IX violation. The letter reminded colleges that Title IX and Clery Act compliance – and continued federal funding -requires on-campus training programs to prevent and reduce sexual assault and harassment. As the schools struggled to end the problem of sexual misconduct, they mandated students, staff, and faculty to participate in online or in-person trainings. All of this prompted our team to ask the rather straightforward question: Does mandatory training actually help change campus climates and reduce sexual misconduct?

Mary Koss & Elise Lopez: Restorative justice is an effective way of addressing sexual misconduct.

Alexandra Brodsky: The push for mandatory referral to criminal justice systems is misguided.

Annie Hill: Victims are not the problem; universities must change cultures conducive to sexual misconduct.

Brian A. Pappas: Mandatory reporting is just one piece of a larger effort needed to address sexual violence on campus